The role of the media in the globalization of culture is a controversial topic in international communication theory and research. Early theories of media influence, commonly known as magic bullet or hypodermic needle theories, believed that the media had powerful effects on audiences. Since then, the debate about media influence has undergone an ebb and flow that has prevented any resolution or agreement among researchers as to the level, scope and implications of media influence. However, key theoretical formulations in international communication clung to a belief in the powerful effects of media on cultures and communities.
At the same time, a body of literature has emerged that questions the scope and level of influence of transnational media. While some scholars within that tradition questioned cultural imperialism without offering conceptual alternatives, others have relied on an interdisciplinary literature of the social sciences and humanities to develop theoretical alternatives to cultural imperialism. The media industry is, in many ways, perfect for globalization or the spread of world trade regardless of traditional political boundaries. As discussed above, the low marginal costs of media mean that reaching a wider market creates much higher profit margins for media companies.
Because the information is not a physical good, shipping costs are generally inconsequential. Finally, the global reach of the media allows them to be relevant in many different countries. Media, Society, Culture and You by Mark Poepsel is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international license, except where otherwise noted. Global electronic telecommunications networks collapse space by transmitting messages in much less time than older physical delivery systems.
We must also expect that audiences will continue to fragment and that digital media startups trying to create audiences from fragmented communities will be commonplace, even if they are difficult to maintain. The media world has witnessed the convergence of media content on digital platforms, the ability of people to participate in one-to-many communication as if they were major broadcasters, and the emergence of structures that allow many-to-many communication. In fact, the ideas exchanged in organizational communication and interpersonal communication are often established, reinforced or denied by media messages. Media products that fail to resonate with the public don't last long, even though they seem to be in tune with current tastes and trends.
However, Hollywood has lobbied the World Trade Organization, a largely pro-globalization group that pushes for fewer market restrictions to rule that this French subsidy is an unfair restriction on trade (Terrill, 199.Dishonest individuals, networks of hackers and botnets, computers programmed to create fake social networks). media accounts, websites and other digital properties can provide content along with messages produced by professionals and legitimate members of the online community. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that transnational media intensify the hybridity that already exists in cultures around the world. However, it seems that the concept of globalization has somehow replaced cultural imperialism as the main conceptual umbrella under which much research and theories have been carried out in international communication.
A good example of this phenomenon of global culture and marketing is James Cameron's 1997 film Titanic. If before the 1990s the dominant media systems in most countries of the world were relatively national in scope, since then most media outlets have become increasingly global, extending their reach beyond the nation-state to win audiences. This bias was clear both in terms of quantity, because most media flows were exported by Western countries and imported by developing countries, and in terms of quality, because developing countries received scant and harmful coverage in Western media. .